Archive for the ‘Anticipatory guidance’ Category


Birth to five years (part 13)

Five years of age: School readiness
School readiness is an outcome measure of early child development. It includes strong social-emotional skills, motivation to learn and intellectual skills. The five-year-old now has a growing sense of competence .
School: Visit his school beforehand and be involved; children do better if their parents are visible right from the start. Tell your child to ask the teacher to explain things when he does not understand what to do, and to tell you and the teacher if anyone acts mean, so you can help him deal with it. Talk daily about what he liked and worried about at school. (more…)

Birth to five years (part 12)

Four years of age: Self-control and a sense of self
The four-year-old develops more self-control over aggression and other impulses, a gender role and a sense of self beyond the immediate family. Friends can become significant attachment figures and be a great source of comfort in stressful situations. He starts to acquire knowledge of social expectations and is more able to distinguish between what is real and pretend .
Language/literacy: Provide time for him to finish his thoughts. As he shows interest in words, point out letters and make rhymes with words .
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Three years of age: Imaginative role-playing and playing with friends
Learning to get along with other children in play, initiating interaction and getting one’s position across to peers are the goals at three years of age. Imaginary play fosters cognitive and social-emotional growth. Play scenes help the child act out negative feelings and begin to help the child understand how others feel. Object constancy is established (ie, remembers people for long periods of time); as a result, he is more relaxed during separations and is able to go along with the caregiver’s activities (ie, attachment ‘partnership’ begins).
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Two years of age: Language develops exponentially
The two-year-old is starting to understand symbolic representation, reflected by expressive language and pretend play. This is a key developmental transition from infancy to childhood.
Language/literacy: Limit television watching to less than 1 h to 2 h per day. Watch together and talk about what you see. Talk together at meals. Do interactive reading: ask him questions about the story, or ask him to point, touch or show.
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18 months: Independence and tantrums
The toddler’s behaviour contains contradictions. He excitedly seeks independence, but shows increased separation anxiety and fear with previously accepted situations. Therefore, he relies even more on his parents as a nurturing, secure base from which to explore. Temper tantrums are helpful because they release tension . Problem-solving: Praise small successes. Help him keep trying (eg, put two puzzle pieces close together).
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Night wakings: (Table 3)

Temper tantrums: (Table 3)  Stay calm. Do not give in to demands (or he will continue to tantrum to get his way). Prevent tantrums through adequate sleep, regular mealtimes, choices (ie, reduces frustration at not getting his own way), one-on-one time (ie, stops the child from feeling ignored) and, if necessary, avoiding excessive sensory stimulation (eg, grocery store). When tantrums occur, helping him label feelings teaches acceptance of negative feelings and fosters parent-child communication. You will always come across Symbicort Dosage at a pharmacy that will offer best deals.

TABLE 3 Anticipatory guidance for social-emotional development: Normal behaviours

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Six months: Holding onto things
Now that baby is sitting with support, his hands are free to reach and grasp, fostering cognitive and social development. Separation and stranger anxiety begin to appear at about eight months of age .
Play: Provide a small variety of safe objects (eg, ‘touch and feel’ books, large building blocks, ball). An upright seat allows him to visually explore and verbally interact with people.
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Birth to five years (part 6)

Three to four months: Initiating fun interactions
A baby of this age is delightfully sociable with a positive emotional state for learning. He initiates interactive play, and thus begins to master social, language and motor skills .
Attachment: Keep baby near someone when he is awake. Play: Play times with you are the main event of his day! Use colourful toys. Through play, children develop physical, cognitive, and social skills and confidence.
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