Archive for the ‘Embryo’ Category


Localization of Connective Tissue Growth Factor: DISCUSSION(5)

Mar 28, 2013 Author: Walter Mcneil | Filed under: Embryo

DISCUSSION(5)

Our observations regarding the presence of CTGF in mouse ULF is consistent with our previous demonstration of CTGF in ULF of pigs. In both species, CTGF biological activity is attributable to heparin-binding 10- to 20-kDa C-terminal isoforms of the protein. Thus despite the dramatic differences in uterine physiology of these two species, certain aspects of CTGF biochemistry appear to have been conserved. This may be indicative of fundamentally similar mechanisms of CTGF processing, which, in the case of the pig, appears to involve rapid but limited degradation of 38-kDa CTGF by proteases in the uterine tract. Since a prominent N-terminal isoform of CTGF was present in endometrial extracts, it is possible that this protein contributed to the overall CTGF signal detected immunohistochemically. These results highlight the importance of determining the biological functions of the individual CTGF isoforms, identifying the specific proteases involved, and defining the mechanisms by which their production and action are regulated. ventolin 100 mcg

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  • Localization of Connective Tissue Growth Factor: DISCUSSION(4)

    Mar 27, 2013 Author: Walter Mcneil | Filed under: Embryo

    Thus the scenario in the immediate postimplantation uterus may be very similar to growth factor cascades that occur during wound healing and fibrosis in which CTGF is produced downstream of the production of TGFp. However, since CTGF was present at only low levels in the uterine stroma on Days 1.5-3.5, when both the type I TGFp receptor and epithelial-derived TGFp1 are present, it is possible that CTGF biosynthesis may be TGFp independent under some circumstances or that TGFp is present only in its latent form. Whatever the precise relationship between CTGF, TGFp, and steroid hormones, our data suggest that CTGF is involved in the establishment of the decidual reaction or is produced as a result of it. proventil inhaler

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  • Localization of Connective Tissue Growth Factor: DISCUSSION(3)

    Mar 26, 2013 Author: Walter Mcneil | Filed under: Embryo

    DISCUSSION(3)

    In addition, TGFp has been postulated as a stimulus for fibronectin production at the time of implantation. In previous studies, TGFp1 accumulated in the stroma after its initial synthesis by luminal and glandular epithelial cells on Days 1-4 of pregnancy (Day 1 = day of vaginal plug). Stromal staining was present on Days 1 and 3, absent on Day 2, markedly enhanced on Day 4, and intense in the decidua on Day 5. It was thus proposed that epithelial-derived TGFp acts to stimulate stromal differentiation at the time of implantation. Cheap Diskus Advair

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  • Localization of Connective Tissue Growth Factor: DISCUSSION(2)

    Mar 25, 2013 Author: Walter Mcneil | Filed under: Embryo

    Decidualization is a highly regulated process and involves increases in DNA synthesis, as well as synthesis and deposition of desmin and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules such as laminin and fibronectin. Fibronectin and laminin are deposited in the endometrial ECM by decidual cells at the time of implantation and, in vitro, have been shown to directly promote blastocyst attachment.Thus, the appearance of CTGF in differentiating endometrium, coupled with its ability to stimulate DNA synthesis, chemotaxis, cell proliferation, and production of ECM components such as fibronectin, type IV collagen, and a5 integrin, is consistent with a direct contribution of CTGF to the differentiation process itself. Buy Advair Diskus Online

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  • Localization of Connective Tissue Growth Factor: DISCUSSION(1)

    Mar 24, 2013 Author: Walter Mcneil | Filed under: Embryo

    DISCUSSION(1)

    Since the discovery of CTGF in 1991, most studies have focused on aspects of its gene induction and role in pathological states such as wound healing, fibroplasia, and sclerotic disorders such as scleroderma and atherosclerosis. While few studies have addressed its role in normal physiological processes, recent data have suggested that CTGF is involved in the physiology of the female reproductive tract and in embryogen-esis. A previous immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that CTGF was present in mouse embryos on Days 14-18, in which it was localized to the skin, liver, intestine, kidney, thymus, lung, pancreas, heart, and tongue. Our data show that CTGF is actually localized to embryonic tissues as early as Day 4.5 and becomes preferentially localized to embryonic ectoderm/mesoderm on Days 5.5-6.5. This temporal and spatial localization supports a role for CTGF in regulating cell growth and differentiation during the early stages of mammalian embryo-genesis. buy cipro

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  • Localization of Connective Tissue Growth Factor: RESULTS(4)

    Mar 23, 2013 Author: Walter Mcneil | Filed under: Embryo

    Although the presence of other heparin-binding growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor and HB-EGF—which elute fromheparincol-umns by 0.5 M and 1 M NaCl, respectively, and aru prusunt in uterine luminal fluids —likelyconiributedtothe overall mitogenic profile, the presence of 12- to 14-kDa C-terminal CTGF proteins in the eluate was demonstrated by their reactivity with anti-mCTGF but not with anti-mCTGF (Fig. 5). Similar low-mass forms of mCTGF have previously been described in fibroblast-conditioned medium. In this experiment, the 12-kDa component eluted earlier from the heparin column (~0.6 M NaCl) than the 14-kDa component (~0.8 M NaCl), suggesting that the two components exhibited differential heparin affinities. flovent inhaler

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  • Localization of Connective Tissue Growth Factor: RESULTS(3)

    Mar 22, 2013 Author: Walter Mcneil | Filed under: Embryo

    RESULTS(3)

    CTGF Isoforms in Endometrial Extracts and ULF

    We have previously demonstrated that pig ULF contains multiple forms of bioactive CTGF that range in size from 10 to 20 kDa and compose between one third and one half of the C-terminal region of the full-length (i.e., 38 kDa) CTGF molecule. It was therefore of interest to determine whether similar low-mass forms of CTGF were also present in the mouse uterine tract. Western blotting of mouse endometrial extracts resulted in the detection of ~36- to 38-kDa CTGF proteins with anti-mCTGF or anti-mCTGF (Fig. 4). This size heterogeneity of “full-length” CTGF is consistent with previous findings. In addition, endometrial extracts contained 20- to 28-kDa “N-terminal” forms of CTGF that reacted with anti-mCTGF but not with anti-mCTGF, as well as a 16-kDa ‘‘C-terminal’’ form that reacted with anti-mCTGF but not with anti-mCTGF (Fig. 4). Western blotting of unfractionated ULF resulted in the detection of the same proteins with anti-mCTGF as were present in endometrium (Fig. 4). buy birth control online

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  • Localization of Connective Tissue Growth Factor: RESULTS(2)

    Mar 21, 2013 Author: Walter Mcneil | Filed under: Embryo

    Staining of stromal and myometrial cells was much lower and was comparable to that observed in cycling animals. However, on Day 4.5 of pregnancy, the time of implantation, the level of CTGF was substantially reduced in both epithelial cell types and was only slightly higher than that in stromal cells (Fig. 2, D and E). By Day 5.5, the stromal cells that had differentiated into decidual cells stained strongly for CTGF, whereas undifferentiated stromal cells beyond the zone of deci-dualization continued to stain weakly for CTGF (Fig. 3A). By Day 6.5, most of the stromal cells had undergone the decidual cell reaction and were strongly positive for CTGF (Fig. 3B). Buy Advair Diskus Online

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