Archive for the ‘Metabolism’ Category


Modulation of Intracellular Glutathione: DISCUSSION(5)

Feb 22, 2013 Author: Walter Mcneil | Filed under: Metabolism

Maintenance of Cys stores after DEM exposure also appears to be influenced by reproductive stage and oviduct region. As observed with GSH levels, L-staged cells can restore Cys levels more rapidly than cells from F-staged tissue. The ISTH again appears to be able to maintain Cys levels better than the AMP, especially when compared to the F-AMP—asobservedintheprevious studyusingBSO in which the ISTH was shown to maintain elevated levels of Cys. The ability to regulate Cys could play an important role in the ability of oviduct epithelial cells to synthesize GSH, since this amino acid is considered rate-limiting in this process.

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  • Modulation of Intracellular Glutathione: DISCUSSION(4)

    Feb 21, 2013 Author: Walter Mcneil | Filed under: Metabolism

    DISCUSSION(4)

    Culture of oviduct epithelial cells in the presence of DEM, which depletes GSH by rapidly forming an adduct with this tripeptide, provides insight into the capacity of the oviduct epithelium to synthesize and replenish GSH stores because GSH biosynthesis is not inhibited. Results from this study suggest that L-staged oviduct epithelium is able to synthesize GSH more readily than oviduct epithelium cultured from F-staged oviducts. Also, the AMP region appeared to be more successful at restoring GSH levels than the ISTH, especially the F-ISTH, which achieved only 50% of control levels by 12 h post-DEM exposure in culture. However, it should be noted that the greatest percentage of recovery for GSH was only 75%, which was observed in the L-AMP. ventolin inhaler

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  • Modulation of Intracellular Glutathione: DISCUSSION(3)

    Feb 20, 2013 Author: Walter Mcneil | Filed under: Metabolism

    However, further culture under these conditions revealed that the ISTH maintained elevated levels of Cys whereas the AMP displayed a decline in cellular Cys over time. This result suggests that Cys may be regulated differently depending upon oviduct region and demands of reproductive processes. Reproductive stage did not appear to influence cellular Cys content. This may have reproductive importance, because Cys, although essential for GSH synthesis, may also be required for proper preimplantation embryo development. birth control pills

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  • Modulation of Intracellular Glutathione: DISCUSSION(2)

    Feb 19, 2013 Author: Walter Mcneil | Filed under: Metabolism

    DISCUSSION(2)

    At the concentration of BSO used in this study (500 ^M), it was shown to deplete GSH (38-61%) but not influence viability; and we observed that GSH levels were depleted in L-staged oviduct epithelial cells more readily than in F-staged samples. In addition, a greater percentage of depletion was observed in the ISTH compared to the AMP region of the oviduct. These findings suggest that turnover is higher in cultured cells from L-staged tissue and the ISTH region of the oviduct. It is interesting to note that early stages of preimplantation embryo development occur in the ISTH region of the oviduct. In addition, since reproductive stage was found to influence GSH turnover, one may infer that the hormonal environment and/or the estrogen-to-progesterone ratio may influence the ability of oviduct epithelial cells to modulate intracellular thiol status. ventolin inhalers

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  • Modulation of Intracellular Glutathione: DISCUSSION(1)

    Feb 18, 2013 Author: Walter Mcneil | Filed under: Metabolism

    This is the first study to address the potential inherent protective capacity that intracellular thiols, such as GSH, may provide in oviduct epithelium. The goal was to determine the status of thiols (Cys, GSH) in cultured bovine oviduct epithelium; to modulate that status using inhibitors, with the purpose of simulating changes that are elicited by oviduct epithelium in response to oxidants; and to define thiol regulation in bovine oviduct epithelium cultured in vitro. The ability of oviduct epithelium to maintain normal physiological functions may be dependent on its ability to regulate GSH stores, which can be lost through turnover, detoxification, and oxidative reactions. Results from this study provide evidence suggesting that reproductive stage (F or L) and region (AMP or ISTH) are important in assessing how this tissue may respond to chemical and environmental conditions that result in oxidative stress. buy levaquin online

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  • Modulation of Intracellular Glutathione: RESULTS(3)

    Feb 17, 2013 Author: Walter Mcneil | Filed under: Metabolism

    RESULTS(3)

    Cys levels were observed to decrease in cultured bovine oviduct epithelium up to 52% during the 1-h exposure to 500 DEM (Fig. 4). Cys depletion was nearly identical between L- and F-staged oviduct epithelium in the AMP up to 1 h after DEM exposure. In the ISTH, Cys depletion was significantly greater in the L-ISTH (52%) as compared to the corresponding F-ISTH (26%). After DEM removal, Cys level recovery during the next 12 h of culture appeared to be dependent on reproductive stage. Cys recovery was greatest in L-staged oviduct epithelial cells of either region; however, values never returned to initial observed levels. buy ampicillin

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  • Modulation of Intracellular Glutathione: RESULTS(2)

    Feb 16, 2013 Author: Walter Mcneil | Filed under: Metabolism

    Interestingly, Cys content of BSO-treated oviduct epithelium derived from the AMP increased during the first hour of incubation and then declined to below control values after 24 h in each region. In contrast, the Cys content of ISTH oviduct epithelium remained elevated throughout the treatment period. Exposure to 500 BSO caused a significant depletion in GSH levels in bovine oviduct epithelium cultured over a 24-h incubation period (F-AMP, 38%; F-ISTH, 58%; L-AMP, 58%; L-ISTH, 61%; Fig. 3). This depletion was first observed to occur within the first 5 h of culture. These results suggest that in AMP-derived oviduct epithelium there is a higher degree of GSH turnover in L-compared to F-staged regions. These differences related to reproductive stage were not observed in the ISTH. Overall, the information obtained from exposing bovine oviduct epithelium to BSO suggests that the F-AMP appears to be more sensitive to environmental conditions than the other reproductive regions and stages owing to lower GSH turnover and elevated loss of Cys. asthma inhalers

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  • Modulation of Intracellular Glutathione: RESULTS(1)

    Feb 15, 2013 Author: Walter Mcneil | Filed under: Metabolism

    RESULTS(1)

    Basal Thiol Levels in Bovine Oviduct Epithelial Cells

    Basal levels of Cys and GSH in bovine oviduct epithelial cells cultured under optimal conditions did not differ significantly between reproductive stage (F or L) and region (AMP or ISTH). Cys concentrations ranged between 0.36 and 0.46 pmol/Vg protein (Fig. 1A), whereas concentrations of GSH ranged from 5.3 to 6.4 pmol GSH/^g protein in oviduct epithelium of the various stages and regions (Fig. 1B). In addition, the percentage of total thiol in the oxidized form was determined for in vitro-cultured bovine oviduct epithelial cells (Table 1). Total GSH present in the oxidized form was significantly lower in the L-ISTH than in other stages and regions, whereas the F-AMP displayed the highest level. buy prednisone

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