Subject Attrition

Of the 133 individuals who expressed an interest in the study, 71 individuals met the inclusion criteria and represented the study sample. The 47% (n=62) attrition was due to excluding data of subjects with packets that were considered incomplete (23), appointment(s) for the hearing test were not kept (31), and general disinterest/dropouts (eight).

Characteristics of the Sample

The 71 subjects ranged in age from 60 to 89 years (mean age=70.01 years, SD=8.41 years), with females representing 66% (n=47) and males representing 34% (n=24) of the total sample. Other descriptive characteristics are listed in Table 1. As shown, most study participants reported a high-school education, were retired, and yearly income ranging from $0 to $20,000. Statistically significant gender differences from Chi-square analyses were not found for each demographic variable. viagra soft

Table 1. Characteristics ot Study Participants (N=71)

Variable

N

%

Mean

SD Range
Age (Years) 60-69 70-79 80-89 38 24 9 53.5 33.8 12.7

70.01

8.41 60-89
GenderMale

Female

24 47 33.8 66.2
Completed Education < Junior high High school CollegeCollege (Postgraduate) 23 31 12 5 32.4 43.7 16.9 7.0
Work StatusUnemployed

Part-time

Full-time

Retired

7 2 7 55 9.9 2.8 9.9 77.5
Income $0-$20,000 $20,001-$40,000 >$40,001 Not reported 45 13 3 10 63.4 18.3 4.2 14.1
Coexisting Medical Conditions

1.9

1.4 0-7
Medications in Use

2.3

1.8 0-9

Hearing Loss

Mean pure-tone audiometric thresholds for right and left ears across frequencies 0.5k-8kHz at octave intervals for male and female subjects are shown in Table 2. These findings reveal that all subjects included in the sample exhibited audiometric configurations in each ear consistent with mild-to-moderate high-frequency sensorineural hearing impairment. The ANO-VA procedures, with one between subject factor (gender) and one within subject factor (audiometric frequency), indicated differences in audiometric thresholds across ears, and owing to gender were not statistically significant at any of the frequencies tested.

Table 2. Means and Standard Deviations (SD) of Pure-Tone Audiometric Measures across Octave Frequencies 0.5-8 kHz in African-American Older Adults (N=71)

Audiometric Frequency (Hz)a

500

1,000

2,000

4,000

8,000

Gender Mean (SD) Mean (SD)

Mean (SD)

Mean (SD)

Mean (SD)

Male (n=24)

Right ear

29 (11) 30 (10)

40 (16)

50(17)

55 (25)

Left ear

28 (9) 27 (10)

36 (13)

49 (17)

54 (22)

Female (n=47)

Right ear

35 (11) 34 (12)

36 (13)

44 (18)

52 (22)

Left ear

33 (13) 31 (14)

35 (16)

41 (21)

50 (24)

Irregularities obtained from background case data and ear inspection procedures (e.g., evidence of previous ear surgery, tympanic membrane perforations, excessive cerumen accumulation, impacted cerumen, foreign bodies and/or unspecified ear canal obstructions) did not exclude any of the subjects contained in the sample. Although not shown, tympanometric measures provided data consistent with normal middle ear functioning for all subjects.

Health Status Attributes

Means and standard deviations of SF-36 scores are shown in Table 3. Statistical evidence for a high level of internal consistency reliability was obtained, with Cronbach’s coefficient alpha across attributes ranging from 0.82 to 0.86. One-way ANOVA revealed statistically significant gender differences in mean SF-36 scores did not occur.

Table 3. Means, SDs, and Ranges of Health Status Obtained from the SF-36 in African-American Older Adults (N=71)

Variable Mean

SD

Range
Physical Function 58.22

27.74

0-100
Social Function 78.69

22.69

25-100
Bodily Pain 67.04

26.55

0-100
General Health 62.29

20.16

15-100
Energy/Vitality 58.45

21.65

0-100
Role
Limitation—Physical 65.40

41.58

0-100
Role
Limitation—Emotional 70.36

39.74

0-100
Mental Health 76.33

21.16

12-00

Bivariate Analyses

Pearson-Product correlation coefficients used to determine relations between hearing loss and each health status attribute are shown in Table 4. Greater degrees of hearing loss were significantly (p<0.05) related to greater self-perceived deficits in physical function (PF: r=-0.39), social function (SF: r=-0.27), energy/vitality (VT: r=-0.30), role limitations due to physical problems (RP: r=-0.33), and mental health functioning (MH: r=-0.25). Statistically significant relations between hearing loss, bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), and role limitations due to emotional problems (RE) did not occur. pharmacy united kingdom

Table 4. Bivariate Correlation Matrix for Hearing Loss and Health Status (SF-36) in African-American Older Adults (N=71)

Variable                           1

2

CO

4

5

6

7

8

9

1. Pure-Tone Average          —

-0.39**

-0.27*

-0.22

-0.18

-0.30**

-0.33*

-0.07

-0.25*

2. Physical Function

0.43

0.46

0.53

0.48

0.56

0.26

0.24

3. Social Function

0.54

0.47

0.62

0.54

0.41

0.46

4. Bodily Pain

0.37

0.58

0.53

0.45

0.27

5. General Health

0.52

0.45

0.21

0.28

6. Energy/Vitality

0.42

0.37

0.47

7. Role Limitation—Physical

0.62

0.27

8. Role Limitation—Emotional

0.45

9. Mental Health

*p<0.05; **p<0.01

Multivariate Analyses

Independent variables and covariates were included in an OLS modeling approach. Only the health status attributes (i.e., PF, SF, VT, RP, MH) that were significantly related to hearing loss in bivariate analyses were used in the multivariate analysis. Table 5 shows standardized regression coefficients (betas)—with standard errors in parentheses—of the difference in each selected health status attribute associated with a change of one standard deviation in hearing loss when holding constant the other independent variables and covariates. In doing so, hearing loss registered a statistically significant (p<0.05) independent effect of lower function scores on four of the five remaining health status attributes (PF: B=-0.15; SF: 6=-0.21; VT: 6=-0.32; RP: 6=-0.29). These findings also point out that when controlling for experimental confounds, hearing loss was significantly related to greater self-perceived deficits in health status—most notably physical function and role limitations due to physical problems. Apcalis Oral Jelly

Table 5. Ordinary Least Squares Regression Analysis for Hearing Loss and Health Status (SF-36) in African-American Older Adults (N=71)

Health Status Attribute0
Variable

PF

SF

BP GH

VT

RP

RE       MH
Pure-tone average

-0.15 (0.30)*

-0.21 (0.26)*

-0.32 (0.24)*

-0.29 (0.45)*

— -0.30 (0.25)
Gender

-0.07 (6.98)

0.06 (5.98)

_ _

0.17 (5.57)

-0.08 (9.67)

—   0.00(5.56)
Age

-0.09 (0.45)

0.06 (0.39)

0.18 (0.36)

0.16 (0.69)

—  0.19(0.36)
Income

0.15 (1.62)

0.00 (1.39)

-0.07 (1.29)

0.12 (2.48)

—  0.00(1.29)
Completed education 0.11 (1.69)

0.13 (1.45)

0.08 (1.35)

0.05 (2.58)

—  0.11 (1.34)
Coexisting medical

-0.13 (2.82)

0.00 (2.56)

0.06 (2.39)

-0.16 (4.32)

0.13 (2.43)
conditions
Medications in use

-0.30 (2.25)

-0.29 (2.04)

0.32 (1.91)

-0.28 (3.45)

— -0.29 (1.94)
R2

0.30

0.15

0.18

0.27

—       0.12
Model F value

3.98**

1.58

2.06

3.47**

—       1.23