Recent progress in molecular biology, especially the development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), has enabled us to use new methods to diagnose and to investigate the pathogenesis of cardiovascular. In this review, the relationships between mitochondrial DNA mutations and cardiovascular disease, one of the most interesting topics in the field of such diseases, are discussed.
Mitochondria possess an energy-producing system, comprising NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome and cytochrome oxidase, which is regulated by both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Human mitochondrial DNA is double-stranded, circular, consists of 16,569 base pairs and contains genes for the mRNA of subunits of respiratory enzyme complexes, and for 22 tRNA and two rRNA molecules. Each myocardial cell contains 2000 to 3000 mitochondria and each mitochondrion possesses two or three DNA circles. Mitochondrial DNA mutations are inherited maternally. Mitochondrial DNA is easily damaged because it is continually exposed to oxygen free radicals, it contains neither histone nor introns, and the mitochondrial DNA repair system is simple. Oxygen free radicals generated by the mitochondrial inner membrane convert deoxyguanosine (dG) in mitochondrial DNA to 8-hydroxy-dG, which is misread as another base during duplication. Therefore, 8-hydroxy-dG accumulation is synonymous with point mutation accumulation. You now have access to the best pharmacy that always does what it promises and sells finest quality drugs that you will benefit from: buy cheap antibiotics and see for yourself how easy and convenient it could be to shop for your drugs online.