Table 1 shows the levels of demographic, psychosocial and clinical variables for boys and girls. There was no significant difference by gender in mean levels INR and hostility scores or percentage with low birthweight. Girls had significantly greater mean BMI and waist circumference than boys. Mean fasting insulin level and Ln[HOMA] score was also significantly higher among girls than boys. Boys reported a higher level of leisure time physical activity. The values of other study characteristics not displayed in Table 1, including, age, household income, single-parent household status and frequency of fast-food eating, did not differ significantly between the two groups.

The results of the Spearman correlation analyses relating INR and hostility to anthropometric and metabolic factors are displayed by gender in Table 2. These data show that both INR and hostility were significantly associated with waist circumference among girls but not boys. INR was significantly and positively correlated with hostility in the entire sample (r=0.19, p=0.01). Apcalis Oral Jelly

Table 1. Mean Values and Percentages of Demographic, Psychosocial and Clinical Variables by Sex

Total (N=172) % or Mean ± SD Girls (N=94) % or Mean ± SD Boys(N=78) % or Mean ± SD P Value
% LBW

30.8

29.8

32.1

0.749

INR

57.9718.16

58.1818.03

57.71 1 8.35

0.712

Hostility

66.46 ± 10.88

66.04 1 11.63

66.97 1 9.95

0.578

Weight (lbs)

134.22 136.22

136.72142.95

131.22 125.84

0.323

BMI (kg/m2)

22.01 ± 5.56

23.27 1 6.75

20.49 1 3.08

0.001

WC (cm)

73.821 12.88

75.701 15.78

71.561 7.61

0.035

Glucose (mg/dl)

79.95 1 8.53

79.35 1 9.08

80.67 1 7.82

0.316

Insulin (|jU/ml)

13.4818.43

15.571 10.19

10.95 14.54

O.001
Ln[HOMA]

0.836 1 0.552

0.946 1 0.630

0.703 1 0.407

0.004

Physical activity (Met-hrs)

13.41 1 11.86

10.02 1 10.47

17.501 12.20

O.001
LBW: low birthweight; INR: Internalized Racism; BMI: body mass index; WC: waist circumference; InHOMA: natural log of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; Met-hrs: metabolic hours of leisure time physical activity.

Shows the comparison of mean levels of BMI, WC and Ln[HOMA] adjusted for age and birthweight by high and low levels of INR among girls. Those with a high level of INR had significantly greater BMI, WC and Ln[HOMA]. Similar analyses for boys revealed no significant differences. These results are not shown.

Table 2. Spearman Correlation Coefficients Relating Internalized Racism and Hostility to Anthropometric Measurements and Fasting Glucose and Insulin among Adolescent Boys and Girls

Internalized Racism

Hostility

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

r (P Value)

r (P Value)

r (P Value)

r (P Value)

Weight 0.087 (0.449) 0.181 (0.081) -0.142 (0.216) 0.181(0.081)
Waist 0.061 (0.594) 0.244 (0.018)* -0.088 (0.444) 0.204(0.049)*
BMI 0.114 (0.319) 0.191 (0.065) -0.128 (0.265) 0.157(0.130)
Insulin 0.127 (0.268) 0.113 (0.277) -0.082 (0.476) 0.088 (0.400)
Glucose -0.118 (0.302) 0.008 (0.937) 0.204 (0.074) 0.055(0.597)
* P Value significant at 0.05 level

Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether the association of INR with Ln[HOMA] among girls would be independent of birthweight, hostility and lifestyle behaviors. The results presented in Table 3 show that compared to those with a low level of INR, girls with high INR have more than a three-fold increased risk of elevated Ln[HOMA] adjusted for other study variables. canadian antibiotics

Table 3. Logistic Regression Models with Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) Relating Internalized Racism to Insulin Resistance (Ln[HOMA])

Girls OR (95% CI) P Value Boys OR (95% CI)

P Value

Age 0.941

(0.522-1.696)

0.840 0.831

(0.325-2.127)

0.699

Income 1.035

(0.822-1.304)

0.769 1.256

(0.813-1.940)

0.304

INR (0=low) 3.301

(1.303-8.362)

0.012 0.555

(0.112-2.748)

0.470

Hostility 0.984

(0.945-1.024)

0.427 0.954

(0.879-1.036)

0.262

Birthweight (0=NBW) 0.706

(0.254-1.958)

0.503 0.815

(0.152-4.366)

0.811

Physical activity (Onone) 1.790

(0.620-5.164)

0.282 0.241

(0.025-2.294)

0.216

Fast food 1.440

(0.829-2.502)

0.195 0.933

(0.370-2.352)

0.883

FamHx (0=none) 1.232

(0.310-4.895)

0.767 0.989

(0.079-12.32)

0.993

INR: Internalized Racism; FamHx: family history of diabetes; Ln[HOMA]: natural log of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance.