The Relationships Among Pulmonary Function, Aerobic Fitness, and Cognitive Functioning in Older COPD Patients: Results

Separate regressions were performed for each of the measures of cognitive functioning. Additionally, for the speed-of-process-ing task, performance was measured in terms of both accuracy of response and speed of response. A separate regression analysis was performed for each of these measures. To control for the potential confounding effects of education and depression on cognitive performance, CESD score and education level were forced into the first level of each regression. After controlling for these variables, age, the measures of pulmonary function (FVC, predicted FVC, FEV1, predicted FEV1, ratio of FEV1 to FVC, maximum voluntary ventilation [MVV], ratio of MVV to predicted MVV, and ratio of MVV to Ve), the measures of oxygen saturation (Spo2 during GXT, Spo2 immediately after 6-min walk), and the measures of aerobic fitness (Vo2peak, 6-min walk distance) were entered stepwise. For the stopping task, the time delay from the stimulus to the stopping signal was also entered as a predictor variable in the second level of the regression.
Results
There were a total of 98 participants in the study, ranging in age from 56 to 80 years old. Of these 98 subjects, data is available for 60 people who completed testing for Fluid, 34 people who completed Speed, 29 people who completed Span, and 31 people who completed Stopping. Descriptive data for each of the subsamples tested is presented in Table 2. canada health and care mall

Fluid
CESD score and education level were entered into the first level of the regression and explained 21% of the observed variance in Fluid (r2 = 0.46; F257 = 7.43; p < 0.001). Distance on the 6-min walk was stepped into the equation next and added significantly to the prediction of variance (Fchange156 = 15.27; p < 0.001; r2change = 0.17; P = 0.0056). Age was stepped into the equation next and accounted for a significant increase in the explained variance (Fchange1,55 = 7.52; p < 0.01; r2change = 0.08; P = —0.35).The addition of V02peak data, the other pulmonary function data, and the oxygen saturation data did not add significantly to the prediction of the variance.
Table 2—Descriptive Data for Each of the Subsamples

Sample/Variable Overall Culture Fair Speed Span Stopping
Sex
Male 54 33 19 15 17
Female 44 27 15 14 14
Education! 6.97 ± 2.15 7.12 ± 2.16 6.79 ± 2.07 6.76 ± 2.13 6.57 ± 2.11
CESD 8.70 ± 8.48 8.85 ± 8.94 8.62 ± 8.11 8.55 ± 8.36 8.10 ± 8.38
Age, yr 67.76 ± 6.01 67.88 ± 5.78 67.24 ± 6.65 66.34 ± 6.19 66.50 ± 6.17
Vo2peak, mL/kg/min 17.27 ± 3.84 17.55 ± 3.96 17.18 ± 3.68 17.25 ± 3.88 17.51 ± 3.68
6-min walk, feet 1,562.69 ± 332.77 1,568.53 ± 368.21 1,557.41 ± 279.51 1,580.79 ± 249.58 1,589.43 ± 221.90
FEV1, L 1.57 ± 0.53 1.59 ± 0.54 1.57 ± 0.55 1.58 ± 0.57 1.59 ± 0.52
FEVj, % predicted 58.34 ± 16.41 58.63 ± 15.40 58.50 ± 18.89 58.38 ± 17.22 59.94 ± 18.19
FEVj/FVC 54.29 ± 9.80 55.02 ± 9.87 52.85 ± 10.08 53.17 ± 8.98 53.45 ± 10.33
MVV, L/min 66.50 ± 27.90 67.67 ± 28.43 65.44 ± 28.74 66.38 ± 27.95 65.45 ± 25.37
Spo2 after GXT 93.06 ± 3.07 93.17 ± 3.16 92.85 ± 3.07 92.76 ± 3.03 92.77 ± 3.06
Spo2 after 6-min walk 94.09 ± 3.03 93.98 ± 3.09 94.12 ± 2.85 94.14 ± 2.92 94.42 ± 2.88

Category: COPD

Tags: mental health, mental processes, respiratory mechanics