The Relationships Among Pulmonary Function, Aerobic Fitness, and Cognitive Functioning in Older COPD Patients: Working Memory Span

Working Memory Span: Working memory span is a limited capacity memory system used to hold information that is used in cognitive activities such as reasoning, problem solving, and comprehension. Engle et al developed the operation-word span procedure used. Participants were asked to determine the accuracy of an arithmetic problem and then were to read aloud and remember the single word presented after the problem. Participants were instructed to remember all words presented until the “recall” command was given. At this point, participants wrote all remembered words on the answer sheet. The grand score of working memory span (range, 2 to 6) was determined as the largest number of words completely recalled in two of the three presentations. The program was administered using MEL software. canadian family pharmacy online

Reaction Inhibition: Reaction inhibition is a measure of the ability to stop a response after it has been initiated. The negative priming task developed by Kane et al was used. In the first 10 trials, participants were asked to identify whether a letter or a number was presented. Participants were encouraged to respond rapidly and accurately. An average response time was generated for the correctly answered trials. In the next 10 trials, an inhibition signal (a beep) was occasionally added after presentation of the stimulus. In the absence of a beep, participants were to respond exactly as they had responded during the first trial block. However, if a beep was present, participants were instructed not to respond to the stimulus.
During the final 100 trials, the time from presentation of the stimulus to the beep was varied in order to measure the shortest time to full motor inhibition. Beeps were given five times each at either 75, 150, 225, or 300 ms following stimulus presentation. Stopping accuracy (the number of trials in which the participant correctly chose not to respond divided by five) was determined for each inhibition signal time. MEL software was used to administer the trials and to collect participant responses.

Category: COPD

Tags: mental health, mental processes, respiratory mechanics